Levels of learning, as used in this context refer to the different competencies students can achieve in the classroom. It is essential in instructional designs while instructional designs clearly dictate the level of instructions allocated to a particular design. Examples of levels of learning include Bruner’s, Blooms taxonomy and Gagne’s hierarchy.
In Bruner’s, he made a distinction between passive and active learning which also entails the idea of what we know and what we intend doing with what we know. According to him, the process of optimum learning should go through his prescribed three stages. Bloom’s taxonomy is a point of reference when it comes to display of demonstrated skills. He went further to categorize demonstrated skills into three broad areas: affective domain, cognitive domain and psychomotor domain. A teacher can utilize these designs to improve content. For instance, in Bloom’s taxonomy, a student is made to recall information; to comprehend what is being taught and to apply the knowledge acquired so far.
Enhancing learning by activity choice
Teaching is a very complex activity and in order to achieve the desired result, learning activities must be put in place. One of such activity choice is the use of multi choice questions during the class to engage the students and to keep them riveted to the ongoing lecture. Another activity choice is allowing the students to indicate answers to my questions with different thumps direction. This also keeps the student alive in the classroom. The use of clickers encouraged students to be active participants as this could be suitable for some students who mat not desire the other choice activities.
It is easier to integrate this knowledge in my own school. Knowing fully well that students in the classroom have different intelligence quotient and different choices, it is thus necessary to utilize a combination of these methods to catch the fancy of categories of student thereby enhancing learning. I believe that these activity choices are effective.
Ethics and the Administration of Justice
According to Emmanuel Kant, he opined that humans are strategically positioned in creation and morality in humans is a summation of imperatives which is a derivation of duties and obligation. He went further to define imperatives as any reason attributed to the action or inaction of a thing. Kant’s hypothetical imperative is a conditional dictate or order which is based on relative mean in everyday life. It does not completely depend upon logic but also upon desire for instance, if I desire to eliminate my hunger pang, I must eat. Another example goes thus: if I must get rid of my thirst, I must drink water. These are maxims that do not really depend on reason alone but also on desire.
Categorical imperatives is a maxim that dictates what is supposed to be done, based on reason alone as opposed to sensual desires. This dictate is unconditional of other things except reason and demands absolute compliance. Example of such is: killing a fellow human being is always wrong. In the given example, Kant asserts that based on reason, no favorable argument can be tendered as to why a fellow human must be killed so, for any reason, killing will always be wrong. Another example that further explains Kant’s categorical is imperative is “telling is bad and will always be bad”. It goes to say that there is more ethical or moral justification for lying because by so doing, the liar has no other reason than ulterior motive. This is why categorical imperative is totally based on reason but not desire.
On the other hand, demands that acts towards fellow humans should be an end-to-itself but not a means. This maxim has a broad meaning and definition will are as follow:
(i) Fellow humans are not to be unjustifiably used to achieve one’s aims and as an edge or gaining unfair advantage over them.
(ii) Fellow human have the undeniable rights that is far above the tyranny of the acclaimed majority of people in utilitarianism
(iii) To what extent should we allow respect for other people? What if those being respected are gaining an unfair advantage over one by using us? Should the respect proceed? Does practical imperative mandate it that we require other people’s help for us to achieve our aim?
(iv) Kant asserts that that it is wrong to treat other as means.